Sunday, May 27, 2018
Trends in Incidence of Cancers
Data from the United States Cancer Statistics for 2014 were used to assess incidence rates, and data from 2005 to 2014 were used to assess trends for cancers associated with overweight and obesity (adenocarcinoma of the esophagus; cancers of the breast [in postmenopausal women], colon and rectum, endometrium, gallbladder, gastric cardia, kidney, liver, ovary, pancreas, and thyroid; meningioma; and multiple myeloma) by sex, age, race/ethnicity, state, geographic region, and cancer site.
In 2014, approximately 631,000 persons in the United States received a diagnosis of cancer associated with overweight and obesity, representing 40% of all cancers diagnosed. Overweight- and obesity-related cancer incidence rates were higher among older persons (ages ≥50 years) than younger persons; higher among females than males; and higher among non-Hispanic black and non-Hispanic white adults compared with other groups. Incidence rates of overweight- and obesity-related cancers during 2005–2014 varied by age, cancer site, and state. Excluding colorectal cancer, incidence rates increased significantly among persons aged 20–74 years; decreased among those aged ≥75 years; increased in 32 states; and were stable in 16 states and the District of Columbia.
The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancer is high in the United States. Incidence rates of overweight- and obesity-related cancers except colorectal cancer have increased in some age groups and states.
The burden of overweight- and obesity-related cancers might be reduced through efforts to prevent and control overweight and obesity. Comprehensive cancer control strategies, including use of evidence-based interventions to promote healthy weight, could help decrease the incidence of these cancers in the United States
Conclusions and Comments
Overweight- and obesity-related cancers accounted for 40% of all cancers diagnosed in 2014 and varied substantially across demographic groups. Endometrial, ovarian, and postmenopausal female breast cancers accounted for 42% of new cases of overweight-and obesity-related cancers in 2014, which is reflected in the higher overall incidence of overweight- and obesity-related cancers among females. For cancers that occurred among both males and females, however, the incidence of most cancers was higher in males.
The increase in obesity-related cancer incidence coincides with an increase in the prevalence of obesity since 1960 in the United States with larger absolute percentage increases from 1960 to 2004 than from 2005 to 2014. The prevalence of overweight during this later period remained stable. These historical and current trends in overweight and obesity and cancers related to excess weight reflect the continued need for public health strategies to prevent and control overweight and obesity in children and adults and help communities make it easier for people to be physically active and eat healthfully.
There is consistent evidence that a high BMI is associated with cancer risk. Persons who are overweight or have obesity are nearly twice as likely as are healthy-weight (BMI = 18.5–24.9kg/m2) persons to develop adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and cancers of the gastric cardia, liver, and kidney (6–9). Persons who have obesity are approximately 30% more likely to develop colorectal cancer than are persons with a healthy weight). Women who are overweight or have obesity are approximately two to four times as likely as are women with a healthy weight to develop endometrial cancer.
Observational studies have provided evidence that even a 5-kg (11 pounds) increase in weight since early adulthood is associated with increased risk for overweight- and obesity-related cancers. Maintaining a healthy weight throughout life has been associated with a reduction in risk of these cancers. However, the population effect of weight loss interventions on cancer risk might not be observable for at least a decade. In studies evaluating the effect of weight change on risks for endometrial cancer and breast cancer after long-term follow-up, weight loss was associated with reduced risks for both types of cancer among postmenopausal women.
Steele CB, Thomas CC, Henley SJ, et al. Vital Signs: Trends in Incidence of Cancers Associated with Overweight and Obesity — the United States, 2005–2014